Lessons 11-12, Texts 56-60: Parinama vada versus Vivarta vada. PPT and recordings of this class are available at http://tinyurl.com/6-sandarbhas
Vivrata vada(VV) philosophy is illusory and mayavada phylospphy refuted by Jiva Goswami whereas Parinama vada(PV) philosophy is a Vaishnava philosophy supported by Jiva Goswami on the authority of Srimad Bhagavatam.
VV: Cosmos is a mere illusory manifestation.
PV: The cosmos is a result (parinama), or modification of the bahiranga-sakti, or extrinsic potency of Paramatma.
How to account immutability(unchange) of Paramatma. He is not only as the instrumental cause of the cosmos (nimitta), but also as its constituent cause (upadana). Jiva Goswami resolution: The part that undergoes modification, Maya, is extrinsic to Paramatma’s essential nature. At the same time Maya is non-different from Him-The acintya-bedha-abedha doctrine.
Text 56 & 57: The generation of the material universe: SB 3.26.51-52: “Thereafter, from these [mahat and so on], which were impelled and united by the presence of Paramatma, appeared an inert egg, called visesa, is surrounded by layers of water, fire, air, ether, ego, and the mahat-tattva, each ten items larger than the previous. All these are enveloped by the outer most layer of pradhana. Within this egg is found the expansion of the various planetary systems, which is a form of Bhagavan Sri Hari Himself.
Vaishnavas do not worship virat rupa. Virata rupa is the gross form of Hiranyagarbha, who contains the aggregate of all the jivas. He is not Bhagavan rather material manifestation.
Text 57: The universe is material SB 2.10.35: “These two forms of Bhagavan, which I have described to you, are a creation of Maya, so the wise accept neither of them [as suitable forworship].” Wise do not worship virata rupa, because it is a material world.
Text 58: The world is parinama (or as a result) of Paramatma sakti Text 58 has 4 sub sections (58.1-4) 1) The trans-rational power of Paramatma What is trans-rational? That which is beyond human rational, reasoning, or logic.
2) The world is real transformation of pradhana Maya, as external energy, is inert, but has a conscious aspect because of its presiding deity, Durga. It is not imaginary because it is a real potency of the Lord. SB 11.24.19: Prakrti is the constituting cause (upadana) of this reality [the universe]; the supreme person is its substratum (adhara); and time is manifestor (abhivyanjaka). But I’m Brahman, which comprehends these three.
3) The superimposition is illusory but not the objects Only an object that exists elsewhere can be superimposed onto something else. Because the universe is generated by Paramatma and is thus not directly He Himself, and because it consists of His external potency Maya, it is not thus directly related to Him. Although the universe is grounded (adhara) in the pure [Paramatma], He has no direct contact with it. SB 11.22.33: “The speculative arguments of philosophers are based upon incomplete knowledge of the Supreme Self and are simply aimed at discerning material dualities. Although such arguments are useless, persons whose attention is diverted away from Me, their own true self, are unable to give them up.”
The assumption of rope to be snake can be made possible only if the person has some impression or experience of snake before.
Even the objects perceived in dreams are not false. Dream objects are also the result of memory impressions in the citta. To mistake the universe for Paramatma or atma is an illusion.
4) Parinama, Not Vivarta, is the real import of Sastra SB 3.5.26-27: “When the equilibrium of the 3 modes that constitute the Maya potency was displaced by the force of time, the transcendent Bhagavan, who is beyond the senses and endowed with His own intrinsic potency (viryavan), placed His seed (virya – the jivas) [i.e His conscious parts] into that Maya through the Purusa, who is His own self-expansion. Thereafter, the mahat-tattva evolved from the un manifested state of Maya, which had been impelled by time. Being of the nature awareness, it dispels the darkness of ignorance even while manifesting the universe situated within itself [in seed form]. There is no mention of Vivarta in this description.
Text 59: Parinama as an aspect of Jnana To instruct Uddhava, Krishna recites the dialogue between Dattatreya and king Yadu, which is an instruction on jnana.
SB 11.9.16-21: At the end of kalpa, the one Bhagavan Narayana, the supreme controller, existing alone by Himself without a second as the shelter of all and the foundation of individual self, dissolves this previously created universe through His own maya, by the latter’s instrumental power in the form of time. When all the energies in the form of the three modes are brought into a balanced state by the Lord’s own power of time, the primeval Purusa, who is the ruler of both phenomenality (pradhana) and the individual conscious beings (purusa), who is the supreme goal of both greater and lesser beings and is thus identified as the Supreme Transcendence, continues to exist. He is the totality of unadulterated self-illumination and bliss, devoid of any material designation. O subdue of enemies! Precipitating His maya potency consisting of the three modes by means of His unique personal power (in the form of time), He first evolves sutra [1st modification of prakrti, predominated by rajas] through her. This (sutra) is called the manifestation of the three modes, which generates the universe of diverse forms, through which it runs like a thread, and by which the living beings rotate in the cycle of birth and death. Just as a spider manifesting a web from its heart through the mouth, sports with it and then swallows it, so also the Lord (creates, sustains, and dissolves the universe).
Text 60: Sat Karya Vada Sat Karya Vada is the principle that the effect is part of, and thus non-different from, its cause. However, this does not mean that the effect is exactly same.
Queries by audience which were answered by His Grace Charu Chandra Prabhuji:
What is meaning of sutra – I thought it means a verse Sutra means verse. Here the meaning is how pradana is
According to Bhagavad Gita, the living entity carries the subtle bodies mind, ego and intelligence every life time.So how to understand when it is said in Paramatma sandarbha that upadana provides subtle and gross bodies. So then where does the subtle bodies of each individual lie? Upadana is part of material nature. Meterial nature is eternal, Material world is temporary.
Slide 6, Virat Purusha is aggregate of the material universe but it is also imaginary, hence it should not be given importance.What is the difference between Pradhana and Mahat tatva. Three modes of material nature are inert in unmanifested state, In the manifest state they are activated by time.
So does that mean that when dissolution happens, then we jivas merge in to the virat purusha along with our subtle bodies or does it get manisfested only when prakrti is impregnated. Virata purusha manifestation takes place in this brahmanda. Gross form is virata purusha. Aggregate of all jivas. During dissolution goes back to subtle form there is no gross form.